The complete guide to scientific reports
In general, a report can be defined as an oral text of a significant volume, in which a specific topic is presented profoundly and in detail. A scientific report is a study on one particular problem presented to an audience of listeners. It can be performed at a seminar, a meeting of the scientific student society, or a round table held at the university.
v Scientific Reports.
As the name implies, these types of reports are created by a research fellow at an educational institution. The result of the study is usually presented at a seminar, conference, etc. If the scientific report was presented at the conference, then his abstracts are published in the collection of abstracts of reports.
"A scientific report is a study on a specific problem presented to an audience of listeners."
This can be a presentation at a seminar, a conference of the student scientific community, or as part of round tables held at the university. In any case, a successful presentation largely depends on the proper organization of the process of preparing the scientific report.
v Preparation of a scientific report.
Preparation of a scientific report is the essential form of independent research work of students, which allows, based on the abilities and skills that have developed in students in the learning process (in the preparation of training reports, essays, presentations), to reveal and develop a research culture. This type of independent activity, such as the preparation of a scientific report, lays the foundation for further research activities of a student, mainly if his long-term plans include continuing studies in masters and postgraduate studies.
The work on the preparation of a scientific report includes not only acquaintance with the literature on selected topics, but also an independent study of specific issues. It requires the student to be able to analyze the studied economic processes, the ability to visualize the results of the work done, and it is critical to interest the audience with the results of their research. Therefore, the preparation of a scientific report requires specific skills.
v Guidelines for the preparation of a scientific report.
Preparation of a scientific report includes several stages of work:
I. Selecting the topic of the scientific report
II. Selection of materials
III. Planning a report. Text work
IV. Presentation materials
V. Preparation for the presentation
Let us dwell in more detail on some of the listed stages of the preparatory work:
I. SELECTION OF THE TOPIC OF THE SCIENTIFIC REPORT
Preparation for the scientific report begins with the selection of the topic of your future presentation. Practice shows that choosing the right topic means half to ensure a successful performance. Of course, the decisive role in this matter is played by the student's interests, hobbies and personal inclinations, the direct connection of the topic of the report with future or present practical work (if these are evening students). Some help in choosing a topic can be provided by the head of a scientific circle, a teacher, a seminar leader or a lecture course. Nevertheless, when choosing a topic and its wording, the following requirements must be taken into account:
1. The theme of the speech should correspond to your knowledge and interests.
It is very important internal psychological attitude. Investment generates inspiration in the course of work on a future report. A topic that has become close and exciting for you is able to capture and captivate the audience of listeners.
2. Do not choose too broad a problem for a scientific report.
This is due to the speaker's limited time. The student report should be designed for 10-15 minutes. For such a period of time, the speaker can fully and deeply consider no more than one or two questions.
3. The scientific report should be of interest to the audience.
It may contain any information new to them, or a statement of the controversial points of view of various authors on the problem addressed.
A student starting to prepare a scientific report must determine the PURPOSE of a future presentation.
It is clear that before studying the literature on a selected topic, it is quite difficult to formulate the specific goal of your research. In this case, it is necessary to indicate a common goal or target. A particular set of the target gives the direction in which the speaker will work to select the required material consciously and purposefully.
Let us explain this idea with a specific example. The student selected the following topic: "The role of large enterprises in a market economy." It is possible, as a general goal, to set ourselves the task of determining the exact place of large companies in the modern economy.
It is known that the criterion for a successful presentation is the presence of contact between the speaker and the audience. Any communication implies the inclusion of both parties - both the speaker and the listeners - in mental activity. To arouse interest, it is necessary to formulate the purpose of the scientific report at the beginning of the speech.
Having defined and outlining the purpose of the report, in the future, we should proceed with the selection of materials. And this is the second stage of preparatory work.
II. MATERIALS SELECTION
The selection of materials for the report is connected with the study of economic literature.
It is advisable to start studying the literature on a selected topic by looking at several textbooks on economic theory. This will provide a general idea of the research questions. A further search for the necessary information involves acquaintance with three groups of sources. The first group is the official documents of the Russian Government. The second group includes monographs, scientific collections, reference books. The third group contains periodicals - journal and newspaper articles. It is in this group that mainly includes new information and facts, provides the latest digital data.
III. REPORT PLAN
After the work on the selection of sources is completed and there is a particular idea about the chosen topic, you can draw up a preliminary plan.
It should be borne in mind that a previously drawn up plan will be changed and adjusted in the process of further study of the topic. And although this plan does not have precisely defined boundaries, its preparation will form the basis of the report being created and already at this stage outline the contours of the future performance. In the future, as you master the material under study, the initial plan can be supplemented, improved, and specified.
Work on the text of a future presentation can be attributed to the most crucial and challenging stage of the preparation of a scientific report. It is at this stage that it is necessary to analyze and evaluate the collected material to formulate the final plan.
Starting to work on the text of the report, the structure of its construction should be taken into account.
The scientific report should include three main parts: introduction, central part, conclusion.
It is a brief section to connect the audience to the problem discussed in the report. "The most difficult task during a business conversation is to win over at its beginning and succeed at its end," - the opinion of the famous American psychologist Dale Carnegie.
Indeed, although the introduction is short-lived (only 2-3 minutes), it is necessary to arouse interest in the audience and set the stage for the report.
The introduction is similar to an overture, as it defines not only the topic of the upcoming report but also gives the leitmotif of the entire speech. The opening can interest listeners, create a favorable mood for future perception.
You need to start with the main idea, which then will take center stage. Several phrases successfully formulated in the introduction can ensure the success of the entire report.
You need to start the report with an appeal to the audience. The following phrases should be straightforward and concise. "Dear colleagues! It is known that large companies form the basis of the economic potential of any state. Composing a small part of the total number of companies in the country, they create a large share of its national wealth. In the economic literature, the competitive advantage of giant firms is traditionally attributed to their economies of scale. However, a large company has traveled a long development path, during which a number of new factors have been identified that can increase its competitiveness. What really allows us to provide a large company with efficient operations? What helps her, despite the shortcomings in general, remain highly competitive?"
The MAIN PART
It is a logical continuation of the questions identified by the author in the introduction. It is in this part of the report that the topic of the speech will be revealed, the necessary evidence (arguments) should be given.
In order to properly build the central part of your report, you need to draw up a detailed plan for it. The importance of compiling such a scenario is connected with the main task of the author. He must, within 10 minutes, allotted to the central part, be able to present and state the author's point of view on the problem identified in the subject of the report.
The presence of a detailed plan allows us to accomplish this task, enables the author to convey his ideas in a concise form to the audience, and meet the established rules.
How should the material in the central part of the report be presented?
The text of the scientific work differs from any other in its logic. Therefore, the selection of questions in the central part should correspond to the logic of the problem outlined in the report. There are also the most general principles of material presentation:
1. From private to general.
This principle of submission of the material assumes the following presentation. At the beginning of the report are examples based on which a generalization is made.
The examples presented in the report should be colorful, memorable, carefully selected. The author should not use random facts in the report and draw far-reaching conclusions based on them.
When presenting the material, it is also necessary to take into account that for the analysis of the problem, it is required to use a higher amount of information and facts than is directly needed to write the text of the speech. The reserve material makes the report more vivid and convincing. "A good report is one behind which there is a lot of backup material, much more than the speaker had the opportunity to use". Reserve material can also be used to answer possible questions from the audience.
2. From general to particular.
This principle involves the presentation of general theoretical principles, which are then concretized and explained. Here is one of the possible uses of this principle. "Currently, in the economy of any state, the central place belongs to a large company. She holds key positions in all areas of the economy. For example, in the US industry, the two hundred largest companies account for 40% of the country's GDP. In most of America's manufacturing industries, the largest companies concentrated between 25 and 100% of industry output. Domestic large business provides more than 50% of industrial output. The situation is similar in most countries of the world."
3. The principle of historicism.
Typically, this principle of presentation is used in the analysis of the history of the problem.
Often, individual moments of a report are stated on principle from general to particular, others using the law of historicism or ascent from specific examples to a general conclusion.
When working on the main part, the author should know that the general rule for any scientific report is the evidence of the statements made. Each thesis (the thesis is a concentrated expression of a separate thought in a report) given in a report must be substantiated, several facts, facts, or citations should be given as evidence. It is vital to observe the "golden mean" and not overload the report with an abundance of numbers. They should be provided with considerable restrictions. Human consciousness cannot simultaneously perceive more than 7 (+ -) 2 digits. A simple enumeration of numbers should be avoided. They are best grouped, classified, and presented in the form of a graph or chart.
Do not abuse proverbs, proverbs, or funny stories. Any proverb should organically fit into the content of the report. The figurativeness of the speech is created by the logic of its construction and its persuasiveness.
And it aims to summarize the main thoughts and ideas of the speech. It, like the whole report, must be prepared in advance in a calm and unhurried environment. Impromptu should not be counted on. "The conclusion of the speech is indeed the strategically most important section of the speech. What the speaker says in conclusion, his last words continue to be heard in the ears of the audience when he has already finished his speech, and apparently, they will be remembered for the longest".
In conclusion, we can briefly repeat the main findings and statements made in the central part of the report. The outcome can also be assigned to the function of summarizing all the material presented by the speaker.