Eczema is a chronic skin inflammation as a result of sensitivity to some components of the external environment or some components of food and causes the appearance of inflamed areas of the skin and cracks and is characterized by the presence of itching and disruption of the skin barrier. It includes many types and the most common type of them is atopic dermatitis. [1]

incidence of eczema

The incidence of eczema in the world is higher than 10%, reaching almost a quarter in the United States and 11% of Africans, Where the number of people infected with it in the United States is more than 30 million people in various stages and it may continue from childhood to adulthood and may end in childhood.[2]


Eczema or atopic dermatitis is caused by a defect in one of the genes of the group responsible for differentiation in epidermal cells, which is carried on chromosome 1q21, and scientific studies have confirmed that the mutation occurred in the filaggrin gene, which is one of the genes of the epidermal differentiation complex.[1]

The appearance of symptoms is usually linked to an allergen like eating certain foods such as milk and dairy products, as well as some nuts or surrounding environmental factors, including smoke, pollen, perfumes, and soap.[2]


Eczema is characterized by that its symptoms sometimes increase and decrease until they disappear at other times, and its symptoms appear in the form of redness and dryness of the skin and the presence of scales, itching of the skin and skin sores (figure 1), in general these symptoms are found in most eczema sufferers.[2]

Eczema appears in three stages: infantile, childhood, and adulthood. Its symptoms differ from one stage to another, as it is limited to children as acute inflammation associated with exudation that is clearer in the face and extensor, and with age, acute inflammation turns into chronic with lichenification and the spread of eczema increases in the body, where it is more visible in the hand. Childhood cases may improve, and eczema may continue with them until Puberty.[1]


The doctor may be able to diagnose eczema by medical examination of the affected skin and see the clear symptoms of the disease, but he can perform some laboratory tests to ensure the absence of other diseases and confirm the diagnosis.[1]

Also, in the event that it is likely that there is an allergy to a particular food or a certain environmental cause, we can conduct an allergy test to confirm the diagnosis and avoid the factor that irritates the cells and the occurrence of eczema.[3]


Eczema is characterized by the need for long-term treatment until its symptoms reduce and disappear. However, the skin can easily become irritated again, even while adhering to medications when exposed to an allergen.[3][2]

·      There are many treatments, but the first treatment is to avoid substances that cause allergies and irritation, and then we can start using creams and medical drugs such as

·      Creams to reduce itching, which contain an anti-inflammatory and allergic substance such as corticosteroids, which must be dosed correctly in order to avoid their side effects

Creams that reduce the immune reaction to antibody E and thus reduce allergic reactions present in the skin and prevent its irritation, such as creams containing calcineurin inhibitors such as tacrolimus

·      We can also add other medicines in case of complications such as bacterial infection, which are treated with antibiotics

·      Also, infants with eczema patients need special care, such as continuous moisturizing of the body during sleep, knowing irritants, and keeping the child away from irritants.[3]


Eczema is a severely harmful disease of the skin due to inflammation and constant itching. It is also disturbing to sleep at night. Therefore, you should go to the doctor when symptoms such as itching and excessive skin infections appear to avoid any of its complications, which include

·      Increased itching and the appearance of wounds and ulcers, which leave many scars

·      Bacterial infection due to the absence of the skin barrier and bacteria may reach the blood, causing sepsis

·      The infection may also extend to important organs such as the eye, causing inflammation in the cornea and thus blindness.[4]


1.   A. Sohn, A. Frankel, R. V. Patel, & G. Goldenberg, Eczema. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine: A Journal of Translational and Personalized Medicine, 78(5), 730–739. (2011). doi:10.1002/msj.20289