Introduction of tuberculosis

Introduction of tuberculosis

Introduction of tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious bacterial disease caused by MycobacteriumThe bacteria primarily affects the lungs, but other organs such as the kidney, and the brain can be attacked too.

Germs can enter the body through contaminated droplets from cough or sneeze. Tuberculosis can cause death if it is left untreated

Types of tuberculosis

There are two categories of tuberculosis infection

Active tuberculosis infection

It is an infection in which bacteria attack organs and cause tuberculosis typical symptoms such as chest pain, phlegm, cough, and weakness, loss of appetite, high temperature, chills and sweating at night

People with active tuberculosis can be contagious to others and certain precautions should be taken if someone is diagnosed with TB. Contacted people should be tested and isolated

There is a rare form of active tuberculosis infection called Miliary TB that could occur when the bacteria spreads into the bloodstream causing fatal symptoms

Latent tuberculosis infection

People with latent tuberculosis infection don’t experience any symptoms and their chest 

x-rays are normal

weak immune system could develop the disease into an active infection

Secondary or Reactivated Tuberculosis

Secondary TB occurs when old lesions are reactivated or primary tuberculosis progress into a chronic form. Secondary tuberculosis stimulates the immunologic reaction of the host leading to extensive tissue damage

Tuberculosis diagnosis

Tuberculosis can be detected in the body through many ways

 Skin test

It is the most used test 

Doctors inject a small amount of a chemical substance called tuberculin under the skin. The appearance of red plumps means a positive result

This test is not 100% accurate and can give a false-negative result if you are vaccinated with the BCG vaccine

Blood test

 the detection of tuberculosis antibodies is an effective tool to diagnose tuberculosis infection

Doctors also use this test for vaccinated people

Imaging tests

Chest X-ray or a CT scan can detect any white spots or changes in the lung

Sputum tests

Physicians screen a sample of sputum to know the strains of tuberculosis bacteria that you have

This test helps doctors to choose the most effective treatment for the disease

Tuberculosis treatment

Many drugs can treat tuberculosis

The First empirical therapy contains a four-drug regimen: rifampin, rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and streptomycin or ethambutol. Once the strain is confirmed by a sputum test, doctors discontinue ethambutol or streptomycin. The duration of therapy depends on the severity of the infection

Most patients take from 9-12 months to get recovery

Medications should be taken in time and the drug course must be completed