How to write a scientific paper?
This article is for those who first decided to publish the results of their research. To look worthy in the eyes of your scientific colleagues, you need to follow a few simple rules for writing scientific papers. Today, scientific papers are written not only by scientists, graduate students, but also students and even schoolchildren. The genius of our young generation no longer surprises anyone. But so that no one doubts your ability, you must at least learn to submit yourself correctly.
If you want to write a scientific paper to be published, in demand and noticed by researchers and your colleagues, you must adhere to a clear plan, follow the recommendations of your supervisor and our article.
v What is a scientific paper?
A scientific paper is a completed author's work describing the results of original scientific research (original scientific paper) or devoted to the consideration of previously published scientific papers related to a common topic (review scientific paper). In the original scientific papers, the authors provide essential information about the study in a form that allows other members of the scientific community to evaluate the research, reproduce the experiments, as well as assess the reasoning and conclusions drawn from them. Review scientific papers that are intended to summarize, analyze, evaluate, summarize, or synthesize previously published information (primary scientific publications). Often a scientific paper combines these two types of scientific texts, including a review and an original part.
v Writing a scientific paper
Writing a scientific paper requires a lot of time for a novice researcher, and the structure of a scientific paper is often overlooked as a stage of writing. In the formation of the material, it is often forgotten that it should be structured, divided into sections, and accordingly, publishers are reluctant to accept unstructured papers for publication. However, the scientific material itself can be unique and have a specific scientific significance. When writing an article, not every researcher will remember the rules and requirements for them. We made a small selection of examples of the structure of a scientific paper from various publishers, universities, as well as the Ministry of Education and Science.
Structuring the material will primarily help a novice researcher to build a correct and logical chain from goal to result, as well as to compare the results, methods, and goals in his scientific research.
Thus, the structuring of a scientific paper :
- Helps to build a logical chain from goal to result.
- Draws up a short research plan.
- Present the results of the study logically.
- Compare the relevance of the topic and the problems being investigated.
- Complex tasks become more manageable if you structure them.
v Basic principles for creating a paper
- A competent scientific paper should be focused on a specific target audience. If a narrow circle of specialists needs your data, indicate this in the introduction.
- A scientific paper should not look like a set of excerpts from various studies with your conclusions at the end of the work. A paper is entirely your research, in which you only rely on a theoretical basis.
- A scientific paper necessarily relies on basic research, is based on already known achievements, while revealing new facts and observations. Refer to statistics, works of other scientists. If you only state your own opinion on the problem, your comments, albeit valuable, but not based on a theoretical basis, the paper will cease to be scientific. Pay attention to new materials. The scientific paper should contain references to works published over the past year.
- The paper should not be too scientific, challenging to understand. Use terms and complicated names as necessary; explain the meaning of new words in science.
- Revealing the problem of your paper, be sure to highlight the development of scientific thought on this issue briefly. Even if the question you posed is exclusive, it can still be connected one way or another, with a specific area, the direction of science.
- Do not try to "embrace the vast." The best option is when a scientific paper covers a specific aspect of the problem, and the topic is slightly narrowed. Divide the text into sections, paragraphs - so it will be much better perceived.
- The paper should have a clear, logical structure. Keep track of the correspondence of the title, topic, and content; do not move away from the issue under consideration to the side.
- Try to summarize the presentation of the material to the conclusions, correctly and succinctly present them. It is the conclusions that contain the principal scientific value of the paper, and observations, arguments, and evidence reinforce them.
- Before writing, plan your scientific paper. It should be logical and thoughtful. The plan includes:
- Title (in native and English)
- Annotation (in native and English)
- Keywords (in native and English)
- Introductory part.
- The main part - it is desirable to highlight subsections in it.
- A concluding section containing conclusions.
- Links and list of references.
It is better to start with the main part, and then proceed to the preparation of the introduction and conclusion.
The title of the paper should reflect the content of the paper and attract the interest of readers. Just like the text of the paper itself, the title is written in a scientific style and most accurately reflects its content. The title of the scientific paper should not exceed 10-12 words.
The main error of the title, if it is too general and does not display the main content of the paper. The title does not reflect the essence of the issue in question and misleads the reader
Bad example: "Labor Protection," "Sberbank of Russia."
A good example: Features of the report on changes in the capital in accordance with Russian and international standards
Do not forget; you are writing a scientific paper, not a journalistic one. Sensational and inviting headlines are no good here!
Bad example: "Global warming! How much is left for us?"
A good example: "The negative impact of technological progress on the environment and methods to combat global warming."
An annotation is optional but desirable. The abstract should be brief, but at the same time, informative. No more than 500 characters (4-5 sentences)
Keywords can reflect key points, results, terms. They should be of some value for expressing the content of the paper and for its search. The keywords can be both individual words and phrases. It's usually enough to pick up 5-10 keywords.
List of sources used
Be sure to include all the references from which you borrowed information. Do not forget! Copyright infringement is punishable by law!
Once again, thoroughly check your text. Pay attention to the reliability of the facts, the consistency of the presentation, the sequence, the connection of the topic, and conclusions. Now you can begin to design a scientific paper. In the process, follow the instructions, publication requirements, publication conditions. For scientific papers, competent design is fundamental.